Exploring the Changes of Commuting Patterns, Commuting Flows, and Travel-to-work Behaviour in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area from 2014 to 2019: A Comparative Analysis of Two Cross-sectional Commuting Surveys

  • Abstract The main purpose of this study is to provide and to compare a detailed statistical overview of commuting patterns, spatial commuting flows, and travel-to-work behavior of workers who work and live reside within the Jakarta Metropolitan Area (JMA). The descriptive analysis is based on the results of two cross-sectional JMA Commuting Surveys, which conducted by the Indonesia Central Statistics Agency (BPS) in 2014 and 2019. By comparing the results of two surveys, we find that the commuting indicators have been decreased, except for the travel cost. The average commuting distance and the commuting time decrease by 5,16 percent and 11,6 percent, respectively. Meanwhile, the average travel cost rises by 21,6 percent. Among 169 possible origin-destination sets, a commute route from Depok to South Jakarta has been consistently become the largest commuting flows during the last five years. Respondents who live in Jakarta subregions and commute by private vehicles tend to have a lower willingness to shift to public transport than those from other cities. In terms of the use of non-privately owned vehicles, most of the commuter respondents switch from non-dedicated lane buses to the online-ride hailing services as the travel reliability of certain public transport services within the JMA has been reduced during the period of 2014-2019. Our findings also emphasize the important role of online-ride hailing services in providing better opportunities, particularly for female commuters, to access job locations.…
    29 Aug
    29 Aug
  • Abstract Transport development has been widely recognized as one of the major drivers in shaping urban forms. While recent literature has documented the urban-land use effect of transport networks between cities, little is known about the effect within cities. Using the Global Human Layer Settlement (GHSL) data provided by European Commission Joint-Project, this paper aims to find any causation between highway expansion and urban sprawl within the Jakarta Metropolitan Area, one of the most urbanized areas in the developing countries. Employing historical transport infrastructures as instruments, the result shows that areas experiencing the most improvement in highways access are converging slower than those with small improvement. This paper adds a piece of enticing evidence for urban economics literature that highway expansion may not always lead to a sprawling development of urban areas, but it can hamper its growth into a more compact urban form. Our results also confirm the existence of transport-led urban expansion in the JMA over the last three decades.…
    14 Aug
    14 Aug
  • Abstract Indonesian Government has set an ambitious target to achieve 23 percent of renewable energy share in primary energy mix as well as in term of power sector by 2025. This target is then realized by committing a plan to build 56.4 GW additional power generation until 2028 as stated in the Electricity Supply Business Plan (RUPTL) 2019–2028. However, the deployment of RE power plant seems to be threatened due to untoward pricing policy which is considerably lower than the generation cost of RE-based electricity, resulting in the increase of possibility of future RE projects become unfeasible. Using 242 RE projects documented in 2019–2018 RUPTL, this study aims to examine feasibility of future projects under BPP price and identify other factors which could possibly increase project’s viability. The scope of this study includes several technologies such as wind, solar, hydro, mini hydro, biomass, and biogas. Financial model was employed to estimate Net Present Value (NPV) of the project as feasibility indicator. Data for project’s cost structure and financial assumption is obtained by literature review, survey and focus group discussion (FGD) to RE developers. The result shows that only less than 50 percent of the samples are feasible, accounting for only 43 per cent by number of projects (103 out of 242 projects) and 42 per cent by capacity (2,452 out of 5,888 MW). Hydro power becomes RE technologies with the highest feasibility followed by biomass. Projects located in Bangka Belitung, Gorontalo, East Kalimantan, Maluku, and North Sulawesi are all feasible,…
    23 Jul
    23 Jul
  • Abstract In recent years, academic productivity as defined by number of papers published has been the preoccupation of Indonesian research policymakers. A number of policies have been introduced, the most prominent of which is assigning score to number of publications and citations through SINTA. These initiatives, however, have often ignored the complex and heavily bureaucratized Indonesian research and higher education sector. Recently, SINTA score has also perversely incentivized some researchers to illegally increase their Scopus score. This paper is a preliminary attempt at assessing policy alternatives to address the issue of low number of academic publications, asking if there are viable or even better policies than the current point system. Incorporating Indonesia’s academic demography into our analysis, we find that giving monetary rewards for every published paper is the best policy option for lower-rank academics to “push” them into research. On the other hand, point rewards are most effective for upper-rank academics since they only need to be “nudged” into research activities. We also offer several recommendations about other policy alternatives (reforming research grants regime, providing international scholarships, and research collaboration) and the importance of detection and monitoring system to prevent the alternatives from becoming perverse incentives.…
    22 Jun
    22 Jun
  • Abstract This paper aims to review Indonesia’s significant progresses in developing its capacity in providing technical assistance within the framework of South-South Cooperation (SSC). The year 2019 had witnessed some advancements in the management of development cooperation towards the establishment of the future Indonesian Agency for International Development (Indonesian AID). These developments are reflected from the allocation of endowment fund as a source funding, series of studies conducted to prepare the establishment of Indonesian AID, the enactment of regulatory frameworks for the agency, and finally the launching of the Lembaga Dana Kerja Sama Pembangunan Internasional (LDKPI) or the Indonesian AID in October 18, 2019. Aside from reviewing those progresses, this paper also offers some proposals regarding measures and steps to undertake in order to achieve the agency’s main purpose and objectives.…
    22 Jun
    22 Jun
  • Abstract Development aid always sends a message a development problem(s) that it wishes to  solve. Using discourse analysis and interviews, this paper attempts to clarify which problem(s) Indonesia wants to address with its South-South and triangular cooperation and finds a lack of them. Instead, messages found in the communication of Indonesia’s aid are diplomatic, supported by the principles of demand-driven, solidarity, and ownership. The lack of indication of development objects and expected aid quality combined with an emphasis on these principles may lead policymakers and aid practitioners to prioritize the maintenance of good relationships with recipients and donor partners over actual development impact. This paper illustrates this tendency through the case of Strengthening Gender Mainstreaming JEL Classification: F50; O22; Z13 Keywords (SGM), a triangular program conducted with USAID and Fiji. Despite drastic change in design and a brief tension among the stakeholders, SGM was “successfully” conducted. Vague messaging on program goals contributed to this “success” as preservation of good relationships and attainment of direct diplomatic objectives were more important. Taking the new regulations on business process into account, the paper concludes with policy recommendations.…
    28 May
    28 May
  • Abstract Industrialization is the engine of economic growth. Most of the developing countries shifted from agriculture towards industrialization with the motivation of pursuing higher economic growth since the last few decades. Past studies have shown that there is clear evidence of a strong correlation between energy consumption and economic growth. Hence, this paper aims to contributes on the topic of energy consumption and how it impacts the level of economic growth through industrialization. Our findings show that the association between use of energy at manufacturing sector, which have been proxied using amount of refined energy and petroleum allocated to manufacturing sector, and the development of manufacturing sector, which have been proxied using level of GDP on manufacturing sector, is not a mere correlation.  Estimations using lagged independent variable proves that an increase on use of energy at manufacturing sector has a positive and, to some extent, significant impact on the expansion of manufacturing sector. Furthermore, this study also finds that the effect of use of energy on manufacturing sector on the expansion of manufacturing sector seems to be weaker and even becomes insignificant on the Non-ASEAN Plus countries. One factor that might explain such phenomena is the difference on the commitment from each country to allocate energy for the development of their manufacturing sector. The energy allocation refers to the share of energy which flows to the manufacturing sector instead to other non-manufacturing sector, such as agriculture, services, or even consumption. Higher share of energy which flows to the manufacturing…
    04 May
    04 May
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