Assessing Indonesia’s Inclusive Employment Opportunities for People with Disability in the COVID-19 Era

  • 9 Agustus 2021 Author: Atiqah Amanda Siregar, Faizal Rahmanto Moeis, and Wildan Al Kautsar Anky   Abstract Providing access of decent work for all can push the attempt of poverty eradication. However, the decent works will not be attainable without the support of inclusive and equitable education, particularly for people with disability (PWD). To date, PWD still faces challenges in obtaining minimum education, decent work, and adequate supporting infrastructure. Thus, this study aims to analyze; (1) the probability of PWD in getting employment; (2) how much the earning handicap of PWD compare to PWOD group, and (3) how the pandemic of COVID-19 affects the PWD workers. Our study suggests that more experienced, educated, and trained labour force will improve the likelihood of working and having wages. PWD tend to have lower educational attainment and training participation compared to PWOD which provide barriers to achieve jobs that are more productive and end up earning lower wages. Moreover, the reduction of wages are highest among PWD with mobility-related disabilities. Yet, the discussion of factors affecting the low wage of PWD remain inconclusive. Further, in the time of COVID-19 pandemic, all participants of Kartu Prakerja Program from PWD group, who managed to finish the training, perceived that the program increased their skill. Despite of other remaining issues, this is encouraging as the value-added skills can be useful in the labour market, particularly for PWD.…
    09 Aug
    09 Aug
  • 7 Agustus 2021 Author: Yusuf Sofiyandi, Yusuf Reza Kurniawan, Khoirunurrofik Khoirunurrofik, Prayoga Wiradisuria, and Dikki Nur Ahmad Saleh   Abstract This paper studies the impact of mobility restriction on daily mass rapid transit (MRT) ridership in Jakarta-Indonesia, and its implication for the farebox revenues during the pandemic COVID-19 outbreak. For the analysis, we primarily used the fare cost and daily passenger datasets of 156 origin-destination pair routes from April 2019 to May 2021. Three types of mobility restrictions are examined: (i) 50% of maximum passenger capacity setting, (ii) station closures, and (iii) changes in service operating hours. A panel dynamic fixed-effects regression model was fitted to quantify the economic losses on farebox revenue due to the mobility restrictions. We find that the average daily MRT ridership decrease by 56.6% due to capacity restriction, 32.6% due to station closures, and 1.7% due to a one-hour decrease in service operating hours. The station closures lead to a route diversion with a significant increase in ridership among other stations. While the effects of capacity restriction and changes in service operation hours have a larger impact during weekdays, the effect of station closure is more pronounced during the weekend. Our estimation results also reveal that the mobility restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic have caused a loss of IDR 179.4 billion or equal to USD12.4 million in terms of potential farebox revenues to the MRT train service operator. This amount could contribute to 65.6% of total realized farebox revenues in 2019–2020. This finding suggests the…
    07 Aug
    07 Aug
  • 1 Juli 2021 Author: Mohamad Ikhsan, I Gede Sthitaprajna Virananda   Abstract As in other countries, COVID-19 has created pressure on Indonesia’s food security through decreased income and reduced access, as well as increased transaction costs and uncertainty in the country’s food system. Before assessing these impacts of COVID-19, we highlight several key facts about Indonesia’s food system, including the high proportion of net consumers among farmers and the domination of informal small-medium enterprises in the supply chain. We then emphasize that food security is threatened by income shocks and purchasing power decline due to economic contraction, while effects on the supply side have been limited so far. While farmers’ terms of trade have increased throughout the pandemic, downstream food SMEs such as traditional food vendors are likely worse affected by COVID-19 restriction measures. On the labor market, we observe a substantial shift of workers to agriculture, accompanied by a deeper drop in the sector’s wage level compared to other sectors. Finally, we caution that risks to food security remain, especially as Indonesia faces new COVID-19 outbreaks post-Eid 2021, and outline policy recommendations related to social safety nets, supply chain resilience, and the use of technology.…
    01 Jul
    01 Jul
  • 3 Juni 2021 Author: Yulianti Abbas, Christine Tjen, and Panggah Tri Wicaksono   Abstract This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of “Pajak Bertutur”, a tax education program in Indonesia. We analyze whether there were differences in students’ tax awareness before and after the program, and whether the results of the program were influenced by students’ familiarity with taxation. We distributed an online survey questionnaire to all students participating in the 2020 tax education program, resulting in a total of 693 responses, 461 for pre-survey and 232 for post-survey. Using multivariate regression analysis, our results suggest that students’ tax awareness level increased after the tax education program. We also found that the increase in tax awareness was greater for students who are familiar with tax authority website and those who have learned about taxation before the event. These findings thus indicate that the effectiveness of the tax education program is influenced by the students’ prior knowledge, emphasizing that a continuous tax education program is necessary to improve tax awareness.…
    03 Jun
    03 Jun
  • 9 April 2021 Author: Riatu Mariatul Qibthiyyah Abstract In the year 2020, in response to COVID-19 health crisis, there were series of adjustment adopted by provinces and local governments. From their stated revised budget, most of provinces and local governments responded by shifting spending allocation to COVID-19 related activities mitigation, rather than by expanding expenditures. Lower-level government average expenditures growth in 2020 is -10.11% and -12.11% respectively for provinces and local governments. Expenditure contraction occurred in all provinces and only 12.4% of local governments show of a positive growth in its public expenditures. On the type of expenditures adjustment, a high increase of emergency spending which covered of 3.3% of total provinces and local government expenditures, may also translate to higher health expenditures. Based on aggregate provincial level data and given that COVID-19 fatalities were concentrated in Java-Bali region, the preliminary results show that emergency spending seem effective in reducing COVID-19 fatalities for the case of provinces in Java-Bali region.…
    09 Apr
    09 Apr
  • 2 March 2021 Author: Kiki Verico Abstract This paper is the second part of the first paper published by the LPEM UI on January 18 2021 (Verico, 2021a). This first part discussed Indonesia’s output gap, the global pandemic’s impact, and the scenario to avoid the middle-income trap by 2040. In this second part, the paper figures out the manufacturing sector performance from 1968 until 2019, before the global pandemic hit Indonesia’s economy. Indonesia’s economy needs an adjustment that depends on the pandemic containment to achieve even higher economic growth to compensate for economic contraction during the pandemic. This paper finds that Indonesia’s manufacture can boost economic growth, decrease open unemployment and improve productivity. This paper argues that Indonesia can achieve the second wave of the Chenery-Syrquin phenomenon of economic transformation from service to manufacturing through two scenarios: one, medium to long-run over the enhancement of the backward linkage of global value chains (GVCs), and two, natural short-run with the role of information and communication technology (ICT).…
    02 Mar
    02 Mar
  • Abstract This paper showed that Indonesia’s output-gap has been improving since 2007 until the global pandemic hit Indonesia in 2020. The ultimate indicator for this improvement was the constant decrease in open unemployment. Okun’s Law calculation proved that Indonesia’s actual economic growth was higher than minimum economic growth to generate jobs. This paper also confirmed the Phillips Curve phenomenon that actual inflation was higher than expected inflation.  Indonesia’s average economic growth from 2007–2019 has increased above its natural long-run economic growth level. The 1global pandemic decreased Indonesia’s economic growth and increased its open unemployment rate in 2020. Indonesia’s economy needs an adjustment which depends on the pandemic containment. This adjustment will be affecting Indonesia’s scenario in avoiding the Middle-Income Trap before 2040 regarding the end of the demographic bonus era. This paper attempts to estimate the impact of the global pandemic on the economy, referring to the Spanish Flu’s impact on the global trade openness and how Indonesia adjusts its economy in the short-run and navigates its economic transformation in the long-run.…
    18 Jan
    18 Jan
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