Exploring the Changes of Commuting Patterns, Commuting Flows, and Travel-to-work Behaviour in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area from 2014 to 2019: A Comparative Analysis of Two Cross-sectional Commuting Surveys


The main purpose of this study is to provide and to compare a detailed statistical overview of commuting patterns, spatial commuting flows, and travel-to-work behavior of workers who work and live reside within the Jakarta Metropolitan Area (JMA). The descriptive analysis is based on the results of two cross-sectional JMA Commuting Surveys, which conducted by the Indonesia Central Statistics Agency (BPS) in 2014 and 2019. By comparing the results of two surveys, we find that the commuting indicators have been decreased, except for the travel cost. The average commuting distance and the commuting time decrease by 5,16 percent and 11,6 percent, respectively. Meanwhile, the average travel cost rises by 21,6 percent. Among 169 possible origin-destination sets, a commute route from Depok to South Jakarta has been consistently become the largest commuting flows during the last five years. Respondents who live in Jakarta subregions and commute by private vehicles tend to have a lower willingness to shift to public transport than those from other cities. In terms of the use of non-privately owned vehicles, most of the commuter respondents switch from non-dedicated lane buses to the online-ride hailing services as the travel reliability of certain public transport services within the JMA has been reduced during the period of 2014-2019. Our findings also emphasize the important role of online-ride hailing services in providing better opportunities, particularly for female commuters, to access job locations.

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